Heroes without memory. How they forgot the exploits of people who glorified Russia

On 5 July 1701, an event occurred which, as is commonly believed, largely determined the course and even the outcome of the Northern War of 1700 — 1721 , which ended with an impressive Russian victory.

It was then, during the battle near the unfinished Novodvinsk fortress, that the Swedes' attempt to destroy Arkhangelsk on the fly, burn the shipyards of Solombala and cut off the Russians from the last sea that connected Russia with Europe was thwarted. By and large, all this was prevented by one person, whose name was unknown for a long time. In any case, in the capitals forgotten until XX century. The name is — Ivan Ryabov. Remembered the feat of the Dvina feeder only thanks to the novel Yury German“Young Russia” yes to the film of the same name by Ilya Guryin. Meanwhile, domestic history is rich in & nbsp; such stories. Ivan Ryabov was still lucky. Because many other heroes are still forgotten. Or almost forgotten. Some just oversight, and some by old order from above…

Ivan Ryabov. To stay in the song

The same Ivan Ryabov was lucky to a certain extent by chance. In & nbsp; 1943, a member of the Military Council of the Northern Fleet, Vice Admiral Alexander Nikolaev gave the military commissar TASS and an employee of the Political Directorate of the Northern Fleet Yuri German combat mission — tell the sailors about the glorious past of the Russian fleet in the North. And did a few tips. In particular, he led the correspondent to Captain Ivan Kotsov. He, like many other Arkhangelsk residents, was not only a captain, but also a connoisseur of antiquity. And by  right — in  his house, Herman saw the charter of the Tsar Ioann Vasilyevich, given to the “lodey feeder Ivashka Kotsovto  the right to go up into the Germans, and down ​​into Rus». And also a letter of Peter I, which the carpenter tsar bestowed Kuzma Kotsovawith the title of “ship leader”. In this family kept and honored the memory of the heroes — about  the feat of the feeder Ryabov to Ivan Kotsov, according to him, in childhood "old lady sang".

Can Is it possible to believe «grandmother's songs»? Herman decided that it was possible. And he built a novel around the plot “Ivan Ryabov saves the Novodvinsk fortress and” Arkhangelsk “. Anyone who has seen the film “Young Russia” must remember how it was. Feeder Ivan Ryabov with  assistant interpreter Mityaunder the guise of a fisherman accidentally captured by the Swedes, he becomes their pilot, promises to take them to Arkhangelsk, but instead, he puts the Swedish flagship and a couple more ships aground exactly in the zone of destruction of the Russian guns of the Novodvinsk fortress. The Swedes naturally get kaput, but they manage to kill Mitya. Ryabov, however, escapes and swims to  his own. The novel was published in & nbsp; 1952 & nbsp; And for almost a quarter of a century, the feat of Ivan Ryabov is brushed aside. Say, all this is cheers-patriotic fiction. But in 1975  historian Nikolai Konkovpublishes the  New Document on the Battle of Novodvinsk on June 25, 1701”, which he found in the archive. The document is called “Questioning Dvina bean Ivan Yermolinson of Sedunov. It clearly follows from this document that Ivashka Sedunov, nicknamed Ryab or Ryabov, and also his interpreter Mitka Popov really did what   , there was such an idea that to introduce thieves' ships into the mouth and & nbsp; run aground. And brought de on, Ivashko, those the above-mentioned thieves' Svei two frigates and a yacht with military people from the sea into the Dvina Estuary, where the builder of the fortress, and half a mile away, those frigates and a yacht stranded … Tolmach de Mitka Popov, who was full of with them, was killed by shotguns from fuses, and he de, Ivashka, was wounded by shot not to death, and he, Ivashka, with  ship, rushing into the water, swam to the shore … & raquo;

Ivan Moshkin. Hero of Europe

In the XVII century                        there was often written about Russians in the European press. It is even generally accepted that the first domestic media person was the “daring Cossack Stenka Razin”, whose uprising was trumpeted by German and Dutch newspapers for several years.

In fact, there was one person who, thirty years before Razin, got into the European media top. And how you got — nice to see! True, the name of the hero is traditionally misrepresented — in "sheets" and  brochures of the Italian Grignaniprinting house call him Simonović. Although in reality it is Ivan Semyonovich Moshkin, a Russian archer of the notch line.

In 1634 he, being in the steppe watch», gets captured by Crimean Tatars. They sell it to Turkey, where Ivan becomes a galley rower. Or rather, on Galeas — this is a class of rowing and sailing ships. Galleas — ships are spacious. The one on which slave Moshkin pulled his strap consisted of 250 people of the Turkish team and troops, and also 280 slaves on oars. Of these slaves, 210 came from Russian regions, and only 70 — from other European countries. This ratio gives some idea of ​​the Crimean misfortune that tormented Russia in those years…

Moshkin turned out to be a man not only persistent, but also adventurous. He manages to put together a conspiracy of slaves, and even involve several slaves close to the captain. In general, in one fine night, a Russian archer blows up part of the ship, and after a bloody battle, out of 250 people of the Turkish team, only 40 remain alive.

Next — some fantasy. A quick passage from the  Marmara to the Mediterranean, the capture of another Turkish ship and, finally, the arrival in the Sicilian port of Messina. Spain then owned Sicily, the Spanish king, informed of such a case, comes to & nbsp; delighted. The Ottoman fleet was such a scourge for the Mediterranean as the Crimean Tatars — for the southern Russian steppes. Capture a huge Turkish ship with 17 cannons, 250 muskets, 200 kg of silver, 20 banners and 500 sets of military uniforms — it's from the  series  it doesn't happen that way . And already if it was done by the slaves, then in general, the guard.

Moshkin and his comrades are offered to serve the Spanish king. The Russians refuse — they want to go home. Similar proposals were received twice more — from Austrian Emperor and Polish King. Moreover, the price of remuneration for service was constantly growing — the hype around the “Russian heroes”, raised by the European press, did its job. However, the Russians returned home. True, here a cool welcome awaited them. I had to forget about & nbsp; rich gifts and & nbsp; awards. The main character, Ivan Moshkin, was again accepted into the & nbsp; archers with a salary of & nbsp; two altyns. Yes and then not immediate — it turned out that the archer, after seven years of Muslim captivity, thirsting for communion, did this directly with the Pope. What followed the royal decree — before accepting him into the service again, “send him under the command to” the patriarch for correction, in order to receive the sacrament from the “pope.”

Alexander Osterman-Tolstoy. Tsarist pettiness

He began his service under Catherine the Great, under the banner of Suvorov — for assaulting Izmail Alexander Ivanovichreceived the Order of St. George of the fourth degree, and & nbsp; after all, he was then only 18 & nbsp; years old. Courage on the battlefield was very well combined with wit and causticity. So, when  he, retired from service, volunteered in the terrible year for Russia in 1812, the general of Italian origin Pauluccispoke in the meaning that Osterman had not donned a uniform for a long time and not  ; might be useful. To it he received the answer: «For you Russia — uniform, you put it on and take it off whenever you want. For me, Russia — my skin».

In the  terrible battle near Ostrovno, when it depended on the stamina of his corps, the armies of Barclayand Bagrationor not, then the fate of the entire war was at stake, Osterman, in response to a question about what to do, calmly said: "Nothing. Stand and die».

In the Battle of Kulm in 1813, his combined detachment decided the fate of the entire battle. However, the general's left arm was almost torn off by a cannonball. When he came to themselves then choosed the surgeon who will do the amputation: "I like your physiognomy, cut". When the operation was over, the count said: “It is very pleasant to be wounded for” the Fatherland, and “as for the left hand, then” I have the right one, which I need for the sign of the cross, a sign of faith in God, on which I rely all my hope.”

And in 1828, the count, dismissed on an indefinite leave, but listed in the service, will once again offer his services to the Russian Emperor. In that year, another war with Turkey will begin. But on this time he will be rejected.  what's the matter? In the pettiness of Nicholas I. Several participants in the Decembrist uprising fled from persecution in the count's house. Plus, he still had the audacity to ask for his relatives and friends. 

Alexander Osterman-Tolstoy will leave Russia. Forever and ever. He will refuse to come even to the anniversary of the Battle of Kulm. Nikolai's beautiful gesture — the emperor will award Osterman with the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, the highest order of the empire…

The ribbon and star of this order, sent in a sealed package, will remain in         The Count will not touch this award until his death.

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